The Helmet of Miltiades. Photograph: Archaeological Museum of Olympia/ Oren Rozen/Wikimedia Commons/ CC BY-SA 3.0
The discovery of the helmet of Miltiades, who fought at the Battle of Marathon is one of the most important archeological finds in world history.
Miltiades, one of the most important figures of ancient Greece, served as the general of the army of Athenians which defeated the Persians in the famous Battle of Marathon.
Visitors to the Archaeological Museum of Olympia stand in awe before the well-preserved artifact, discovered in the late nineteenth century.
The magnificent helmet was recovered from the ruins of the Temple of Zeus in Olympia. Its dome is missing, but the rest of the Corinthian-style helmet is almost intact after 2,500 years.
On the side are the words “ΜΙΛΤΙΑΔΕΣ ΑΝΕ[Θ]ΕΚΕΝ [Τ]ΟΙ ΔΙ.” This means “Militiades offered his helmet to Zeus.”
Historians argue that the helmet was found in the temple for one of two reasons. Either the great warrior wanted the support of Zeus for an upcoming battle or the offering was to thank the god for a battle won.
If the latter is true and Miltiades wanted to express his gratitude to Zeus for defeating the Persians in the Battle of Marathon, then the discovery of his helmet is of even greater significance and the priceless artifact itself even more awe-inspiring.
Based on the writings of Plutarch and Herodotus, some historians and archeologists do indeed believe that Miltiades offered the helmet to Zeus after he returned victorious from Marathon, thus saving the great city-state of Athens from the hands of the Persians.
Of course, this, in turn, preserved the course of history and western civilization as we know of it today.
Miltiades (550 to 489 BC) was born an aristocrat, the son of Cimon Colelamos, a famous Olympic chariot racer who was a champion in three Olympic Games.
He received a good education which not only helped him become an able politician but a great general, as well.
When he became the ruler of Athens, he defended the city against Persian despotism and showed his resolve and determination when he put the Persian heralds who came to demand the surrender of the city to death.
Miltiades then struck out from the city with his outnumbered army and beat the Persians at Marathon.
The Battle of Marathon is one of the most famous ancient battles in the entire world, generating numerous legends and stories over the millennia based on writings of ancient historians, such as Plutarch and Herodotus.
The two armies clashed on the Plain of Marathon in 490 BC in an area located some 42 km (about 26 miles) north of Athens.
It was Miltiades’ idea to fight the Persians far from the city, knowing that a siege would be disastrous. With his clever strategy, he positioned his troops so that they dealt a heavy blow to the Persians, forcing them to retreat.
From the writings of Herodotus, modern historians assume that he must have spoken to old veterans who had known and fought under Miltiades, as he reported several details of the battle.
What stands out most, perhaps, is a speech Miltiades made to Callimachus, a general with an important role in the Athenian army.
The inspiring speech, which seems authentic based on eyewitness accounts, must have changed the mind of certain generals who wanted to face the Persian army in Athens rather than in Marathon. The speech, as seen below, also likely raised the morale of the hoplites who fought with great discipline and bravery:
With you it rests, Callimachus, either to bring Athens to slavery, or, by securing her freedom, to be remembered by all future generations. For never since the time that the Athenians became a people were they in so great a danger as now.
If they bow their necks beneath the yoke of the Persians, the woes which they will have to suffer…are already determined. If, on the other hand, they fight and overcome, Athens may rise to be the very first city in Greece. We generals are ten in number, and our votes are divided: half of us wish to engage, half to avoid a combat.
Now, if we do not fight, I look to see a great disturbance at Athens which will shake men’s resolutions, and then I fear they will submit themselves. But, if we fight the battle before any unsoundness shows itself among our citizens…we are well able to overcome the enemy. On you therefore we depend in this matter, which lies wholly in your own power.
You have only to add your vote to my side and your country will be free—and not free only, but the first state in Greece. Or, if you prefer to give your vote to them who would decline the combat, then the reverse will follow.
Miltiades believed in the greatness that was the democratic city-state of Athens and wanted to preserve it for generations to come.
He may be less well-known than Pericles, but his contribution to ancient Greece, and consequently western civilization, is invaluable.